In this post, you will learn about various expressions and operations in CDS view.

So far, we have looked at creating a simple CDS view, CDS view with associations, parameters etc. Read earlier posts in this series at Exploring ABAP on HANA.

This post will focus bit more on syntax part rather than concepts as concepts here are either self explanatory or have been covered in earlier posts.

Projection List

Fields of data source

Field can be a key field or a non-key field. Alias can be used. If alias is not used then the field name itself becomes the final column name.


These are constants of numeric or characters type and simply put the constant value for all rows in the output. Eg. ‘12345’, ‘CDS’. It is mandatory to specify alias name for literals in the field list.

Session Variables

Below session variables can be used with $session.variable_name

userCurrent user name : SY-UNAME
clientCurrent client : SY-MANDT
system_languageCurrent language : SY-LANGU
system_dateCurrent system date : SY-DATUM (Available from 7.51)

Case Statement and Conditions

Simple case – Case statement on single variable similar to ABAP.

Complex / Searched case -This has multiple conditions in each case and it can have conditions other than ‘equal to’ ( = ).

Consider below Marvels Movie table for this example..

Suppose, we want to produce Phase as First, Second, Third, Fourth instead of Phase 1, Phase 2 and so on, we can use Simple Case statement.

Similarly, if we want to call a movie Hit, Flop etc based on the opening collection, we can use Complex Case statement.

Projection List

Fields from projection list can be accessed using $projection. You can use this in Associations.


In a CDS view with a parameter, a parameter can be addressed with a colon ( : ) or with $parameters.


Regular Comparisons

operand1 =  operand2
operand1 <> operand2
operand1 <  operand2
operand1 >  operand2
operand1 <= operand2
operand1 >= operand2

These are really simple ones right? We also have between.

operand1 between operand2 and operand3

Pattern comparisons

This is similar to contains string or the like operation that we perform in Open SQL.

What if the data itself has % or _ which you want to search?

Then we can use Escape Character. Suppose movie name was ‘Avenger% 1’ and we want to search with pattern Avenger%, then we can use the escape character in the pattern string. SAP recommends to use # as escape character.

when movie like 'Avenger#%%' escape '#'

Check for null values

operand1 is null
operand2 is not null

Arithmetic Operations

We can have addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and in addition to these a negation operator.

case indicator
  when 'Credit' then amount
  when 'Debit'  then -amount
end as DueAmount

Aggregates Functions

Aggregate functions evaluate multiple records from the source and return aggregations such as total, count.

MAX, MIN, AVG, SUM, COUNT are the aggregate functions available. These are pretty self explanatory, so I am going to mention only one example.

Group By clause is mandatory when using aggregate functions. Having clause can be added to filter data based on aggregation.

As phase 4 collection does not match the condition, it is not shown.

Type Casting

We have seen this in the currency and unit conversion post.

cast( 'EUR' as abap.cuky) as Currency

Below are the types that can be used.

Data TypeDescription
abap.char( len )Character with length specification
abap.cuky( len )Currency Key
abap.curr(len,decimals)CURR with length len and decimals decimal places
abap.dec(len,decimals)DEC with length len and decimals decimal places
abap.numc( len )NUMC with length len
abap.quan(len,decimals)QUAN with length len with decimals decimal places
abap.unit( len )Unit

Numeric Functions

Below numeric functions are possible.

ABS(arg)Absolute amount
CEIL(arg)Round Up
ROUND(arg, pos)Rounding with number of decimal specification
FLOOR(arg)Round Down
DIV(arg1, arg2)Quotient
DIVISION(arg1, arg2, dec)The result is rounded to dec decimal places.
MOD(arg1, arg2)Remainder

String Functions

Operations like concatenation, Substring, replace, length, left substring, right substring removing right or left blanks or zeros etc. are possible.

concat( char1, char2 )               as concat,
length( char1 )                      as length,
left( char1, 3 )                     as left,
lower( char2 )                       as lower,
upper( char2 )                       as upper, 
right( char1, 3 )                    as right,
substring( char1, 3, 3 )             as substring, 
replace( char1, ',' , '.' )          as replace,
concat_with_space( char1, char2, 1 ) as concat_with_space

Decimal Shift

This can be used to get the amount as per the currencies, specially the ones which have other than 2 decimal places.

decimal_shift( amount => amount, currency => currency ) as Amount

Date Functions

Functions like add days, add months, days between dates, and date validation can be used in the CDS.

dats_add_days     (releasedon, 14, 'INITIAL')  as DateAfter2Weeks,
dats_add_months   (releasedon, 3, 'NULL'   )   as Dateafter3Months,
dats_days_between (releasedon, :iv_curr_date ) as DaysSinceTheRelease,
dats_is_valid     (releasedon)                 as IsValidDate

Nesting Functions

It is also possible to use functions within functions like below which converts time from minutes to format HH:MM.

concat( concat(lpad ( ltrim ( cast( div(fltime, 60) as abap.char( 12 ) ), '0' ), 2, '0' ), ':' ) ,
    lpad ( ltrim ( cast( mod(fltime, 60) as abap.char( 12 ) ), '0'), 2, '0' ) ) as Flight_Time

This is probably a more complex example which

  • gets the number of hours by dividing the time by 60
  • casts the results as character
  • removes leading zeros if any
  • adds leading zero up to 2 places (so that 1 shows as 01)
  • repeats this process for minutes, just this time uses mod to get remaining minutes
  • then concatenates HH and : into say HH: and then concatenates it with MM to get HH:MM

The point here is not to understand all this right away, but to know that such complex expressions are possible.

I have not given examples of actual CDS code and outputs here as so far, I am sure you are comfortable with CDS views and can try these out yourselves.

However, if you need such examples, do let me know in the comment section and I will post dedicate article on required section.

Reference Code


@AbapCatalog.sqlViewName: 'ZJP_SQL_EXP'
@AccessControl.authorizationCheck: #NOT_REQUIRED
@EndUserText.label: 'Various Expressions'
define view zjp_cds_expressions as select from sflight {
    key carrid as Carrid,       //Key Field
    key connid as Connid,       //Key Field
    key fldate as Fldate,       //Key Field
        seatsmax as Seatsmax,   //Non-Key Field
        seatsocc as Seatsocc,   //Non-Key Field
    'Flight' as Title,          //Literal - Text
    10       as Num1,           //Literal - Number
    $session.user            as UserName,
    $session.client          as Client,
    $session.system_language as SystemLanguage
    //$session.system_date     as SystemDate,  


@AbapCatalog.sqlViewName: 'ZJP_10_EXP'
@AccessControl.authorizationCheck: #NOT_ALLOWED
@EndUserText.label: 'CDS Expressions and Operations'
define view ZJP_10_CDS_EXPRESSIONS
  as select from zmmovie
  key movie                as Movie,          //Key Field
      phase                as Phase_Orig,
      case phase                              //Simple Case
        when 'Phase 1' then 'First'
        when 'Phase 2' then 'Second'
        when 'Phase 3' then 'Third'
      else 'Fourth'
      end                  as Phase_New,
      case                                    //Complex Case
        when openingcol > 050000000.00 and openingcol <= 100000000.00
          then 'Hit'
        when openingcol > 100000000.00 and openingcol <= 250000000.00
          then 'Superhit'
        when openingcol > 250000000.00
          then 'Blockbuster'
        else 'Flop'
      end                  as Verdict


@AbapCatalog.sqlViewName: 'ZJP_SQL_AGGR'
@AccessControl.authorizationCheck: #NOT_REQUIRED
@EndUserText.label: 'Aggregates'
define view ZJP_11_CDS_EXPRESSIONS
  as select from zmmovie
  phase           as Phase,
  @Semantics.amount.currencyCode : 'Currency'
  sum(openingcol) as TotalOpenCollection,
  @Semantics.currencyCode: true
  currency        as Currency
} group by phase, currency
  having sum(openingcol)  > 650000000.00

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